Globally, over 240 million children under five years of age suffer from malnutrition. Approximately 85% of these children are undernourished, manifesting as underweight, wasting, stunting and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies. Under-nutrition contributes to about 45% of deaths in children under five years of age. Children in low-income and resource poor communities and nations are at the greatest risk. Healthcare providers in these communities play a central role in limiting the effects of under-nutrition in this vulnerable population, through early identification, prompt and appropriate care and referral. In this session we will review evidence-based approaches to developing sustainable preventive and early intervention strategies to combat the leading underlying cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in resource limited communities.